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Esophageal Cancer

Esophageal Cancer: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

Esophageal cancer is a serious and potentially lethal disease characterized by the growth of cancerous cells in the esophagus, the long tube that runs from the throat to the stomach. Finding the Best Oncologist in Hyderabad and Understanding the symptoms, causes, and treatment options available for esophageal cancer is crucial for early detection and effective management of the disease.

Types of Esophageal Cancer:

There are two main types of esophageal cancer:


  • Origin: This type of esophageal cancer develops in the glandular cells, which are located in the lower part of the esophagus near the stomach. These cells are responsible for producing mucus and other fluids.
  • Cause and Risk Factors: Adenocarcinoma is commonly associated with a history of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD), where stomach acid frequently backs up into the esophagus. A condition called Barrett’s esophagus, where there is a change in the esophageal lining due to prolonged acid exposure, significantly increases the risk.
  • Prevalence: In recent years, adenocarcinoma has become more common, especially in Western countries, and is more frequently diagnosed in men than in women.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma:

  • Origin: This type arises from the flat, thin cells that line the surface of the esophagus. These cells are found throughout the length of the esophagus.
  • Cause and Risk Factors: The risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma include heavy alcohol consumption, tobacco use, a diet low in fruits and vegetables, drinking very hot liquids, and certain medical conditions like achalasia (a disorder of the muscle at the bottom of the esophagus).
  • Prevalence: Historically, this was the most common type of esophageal cancer worldwide, especially in Asia and parts of Africa. It is still more common than adenocarcinoma in many of these regions.

Symptoms of Esophageal Cancer:

The symptoms of esophageal cancer typically become apparent once the tumor grows large enough to interfere with swallowing and other functions of the esophagus. Common symptoms include:

Difficulty Swallowing (Dysphagia): This is often one of the earliest signs of esophageal cancer. The feeling is typically that food is getting stuck in your throat or chest, and sometimes even that you are choking on food. This symptom occurs because a tumor in the esophagus narrows the passage, making it difficult for food to pass.

Unintentional Weight Loss: Significant weight loss without trying may be a sign of esophageal cancer. This can occur because dysphagia makes it difficult to eat enough to maintain weight. Also, cancer can alter metabolism, contributing to weight loss.

Chest Pain, Pressure, or Burning: These symptoms may be felt anywhere between the chest and the upper abdomen and can be constant or come and go. The pain may be due to the growth of the tumor or related to eating if the tumor interferes with food passage.

Worsening Indigestion or Heartburn: While these are common symptoms that can be related to many benign conditions, a noticeable increase in frequency or severity could be associated with esophageal cancer. This happens as the growing tumor affects the normal function of the esophagus and may increase acid reflux.

Coughing or Hoarseness: If a tumor invades the esophagus’s nerves, it may lead to a chronic cough or hoarseness due to vocal cord paralysis. Additionally, coughing may occur if the body is attempting to clear the esophagus of food that hasn’t passed properly.

Regurgitation of Food or Liquids: This symptom occurs when food or liquid is forced back up into the throat or mouth. This happens when the esophagus is obstructed by a tumor, preventing normal swallowing and causing food to back up.

In some cases, symptoms might not be noticeable until the cancer is in advanced stages, which underscores the importance of paying attention to subtler, persistent changes in health.

Causes and Risk Factors:

While the exact cause of esophageal cancer is not known, several risk factors have been identified:

Tobacco and Alcohol Use: Both are major risk factors, and their combined use increases risk significantly.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): Chronic acid reflux can lead to changes in the lining of the esophagus that increase cancer risk.

Barrett’s Esophagus: A condition where the esophageal lining changes, usually due to repeated exposure to stomach acid, which increases the risk of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus.

Dietary Factors: A diet low in fruits and vegetables and certain vitamins and minerals can increase the risk.

Obesity: Fat accumulation, especially around the abdominal area, can increase the risk of esophageal cancer.

Achalasia: A rare disorder that makes it difficult for the esophagus to move food into the stomach.

Exposure to Certain Chemicals: Working with certain chemical irritants may increase the risk.

Treatment Options for Esophageal Cancer

The best Esophageal Cancer Treatment in Hyderabad depends on the stage of the cancer, the patient’s overall health, and personal preferences. Common treatments include:

Surgery: Procedures to remove the cancerous part of the esophagus, and sometimes nearby lymph nodes.

Chemotherapy: Drugs used to kill cancer cells, often used before or after surgery, or in combination with radiation therapy.

Radiation Therapy: High-energy beams used to kill cancer cells, often combined with chemotherapy.

Targeted Drug Therapy: Drugs that target specific weaknesses present within cancer cells.

Immunotherapy: Uses the body’s immune system to fight cancer.

Challenges in Treatment:

The treatment of esophageal cancer presents several challenges:

Late Diagnosis: Many cases are diagnosed at an advanced stage, which can limit treatment options and reduce survival rates.

Recurrence: There is a risk that cancer can return, even after successful treatment.

Side Effects: Treatments, especially chemotherapy and radiation, can have significant side effects that need to be managed.


Esophageal cancer is a complex disease that requires a multidisciplinary approach to care. Awareness of symptoms and risk factors can lead to earlier diagnosis and more effective treatment. Advances in medical research continue to provide new treatments and hope for better outcomes.