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Stomach Or Gastric Cancer

Sight:– Stomach
Sex Prediction:– Men Are At Higher Risk Than Women For Gastric Cancer. It Is Thought That Female Reproductive Hormones Such As Estrogen And Progesterone Help Protect Against Gastric Cancer Development.
Age:- The risk for developing gastric cancer gradually increases after the age of 40


Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide and is the fourth most common diagnosed cancer worldwide. The incidence rates for most types of gastric cancer are dropping universally because of modifications in living conditions and diet.

Risk Factors of Stomach Cancer

  • Helicobacter pylori infection

  • Diet

  • Gender

  • Age

  • Ethnicity

  • Geography

  • Smoking

  • Obesity

  • Previous stomach surgery

  • Pernicious anemia

  • Menetrier disease

  • Type A blood

  • Family history of stomach cancer

  • Occupations

  • Epstein-Barr infection

  • Some stomach polyps

If there is doubt that a patient is suffering from gastric cancer, a sample of tissue (biopsy) is usually taken for assessment. After a biopsy is taken, the pathologist examines the sample at with both naked eyes and microscopic levels. The final report contains details of the tissue’s emergence, cellular make up, and status of disease or normalcy.

Staging a cancer is a method of describing the level of the disease. Mostly cancer staging is done wih the help of T/N/M system. It allocates the extent of severity depending on the size, location, and its reach in the body. Two important factors that determines the survival for gastric cancer patients are depth of incursion via the gastric wall and the number of lymph nodes involved.

Diagnosis Of Gastric Cancer:-
Gastric cancer detection occurs most often after it has developed into a late-stage cancer. Because gastric cancer is not common screening of the general public is not actively pursued. In contrast, countries that have high levels of gastric cancer, like Japan, have more rigorously applied screening procedures which often result in early detection of gastric cancer.

Because about 1% of people infected with H. pylori will develop gastric cancer, it has been proposed that screening for infection with the bacteria should be considered for people living in areas where infection rates are high.

Symptoms Of Gastric Cancer:-
Early-stage gastric cancer typically has few symptoms, but the following general symptoms may occur:

1. Indigestion, stomach discomfort, or heartburn

2. Nausea or loss of appetite

3. Feeling tired

Early-stage gastric cancer typically has few symptoms, but the following general symptoms may occur:

1. Blood in the stool or stools that are black in color

2. A bloated feeling after eating, even when eating a small amount

3. Vomiting after meals

4. Unintended weight loss

5. Stomach pain, especially after meals

6. Weakness and fatigue


Gastric Cancer Treatment:-

Depending on the on the stage of the disease, gastric cancer treatments can be divided into two categories. Early stage treatment is about tumors that have not yet penetrated the serosal layer of the stomach. Advanced stage treatment is about tumors that have penetrated the serosa and have spread to other regions of the body. Treatment options depend on the cancer stage, and size and location of the tumor.

Surgery is the most common treatment option for early-stage gastric cancer. Three main surgical options exist for gastric cancer:

Total gastrectomy:

The surgical removal of the entire stomach.

Partial or subtotal gastrectomy:

The surgical removal of specific sections of the stomach


The surgical removal of a tumor and some surrounding tissue

The removal of the surrounding lymph nodes is frequently done during any type of surgery. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy may also be used after surgery. Gastric cancer has a high recurrence rate, so maintaining a healthy lifestyle and continuing medical surveillance after treatment are important.

The Treatments Apart From Surgery For Gastric Cancer Are:

  • Radiation Therapy
  • Chemotherapy

The 3 Main Types Of Surgery For Stomach Cancer

  • Endoscopic mucosal resection:Resection means cutting out a tumor or part of an organ in such a way that the cancer is removed through an endoscope. This is usually done for some initia; cancer stage where the possibility of spread is very low.

  • Subtotal (partial) gastrectomy: This type of surgey is mostly done if the cancer exists only in the lower part of the stomach i.e. near to the intestines. It can also be sometimes used for cancers that exists in the upper part of the stomach.

  • Total gastrectomy: This approach is followed when the cancer gets spread throughout the stomach. In this case, the surgeon is supposed to remove all of the stomach.

    Sometimes the spleen, pancreas, nearby lymph nodes, and parts of the esophagus are also removed. People who undergo total gastrectomy are able to eat a small amount of food at a time. Thus, they are advised to eat more often.

Placement of a feeding tube

After the surgery for stomach cancer, some patients may find it difficult to take in enough food. In order to cope up with this, during gastrectomy, a tube can be placed into the intestine. The end of this tube stays at the exterior of the abdomen skin. This pipe allows the intake of liquid nutrition directly and can help prevent malnutrition.

Taking Out Lymph Nodes

In either a subtotal or total gastrectomy, the lymph nodes and some of the fatty tissue (omentum) around the stomach are removed.

Palliative Surgery For Cancer That Cannot Be Removed

People suffering with stomach cancer that is unresectable (cannot be removed), surgery can be used to control the cancer or alleviate any symptoms or problems.

Radiation Therapy:

Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays or particles to kill cancer cells in a specific area of the body. Radiation can be used in different ways to help treat stomach cancer:

Before surgery for some cases radiation can be used along with chemo to try to shrink the tumor to make surgery easier.

After surgery, radiation therapy can be used to kill very small remnants of the cancer that cannot be seen and removed during surgery. Radiation therapy — especially when combined with chemo drugs such as 5-FU — may delay or prevent cancer recurrence after surgery and may help patients live longer.

Radiation therapy can be used to slow the growth and ease the symptoms of advanced stomach cancer, such as pain, bleeding, and eating problems.

External beam radiation therapy is the special type of radiation therapy that is usually needed to treat stomach cancer. This treatment involves giving radiation from a machine outside the body. The radiation team will take vigilant measurements to find out the accurate angles for aiming the radiation beams before the treatment. It is typically given 5 days a week over a period of several months.


Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. It can be either given orally in the form of a pill or intravenously with a needle. Chemotherapy gradually shrinks the tumors that are larger than 5 cm, which are usually not suitable for surgery. Chemo is usually given after surgery. The main objective of chemo is to keep the cancer from coming back.

Chemo is the main treatment for stomach cancer as it can spread to remote organs. The chemo is mostly given in cycles, followed by a rest period of recovering.

Targeted Therapy:

If the tissue shows tests positive for Her 2 / new, then targeted therapy like Trastu Zumal can be used along with chemotherapy. These are given in vein.

These agents directly act over the cell expressing Her 2 / new which is the target having cancerous property.

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