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Liver Cancer: Symptoms, Signs, Causes & Treatment

Liver cancer is a grave and challenging health condition that affects numerous individuals worldwide. Early detection and treatment can play a pivotal role in managing the disease effectively. This article delves deep into liver cancer, providing insights into its causes, symptoms, treatment options, and preventive measures.

What is Liver Cancer?

Liver cancer is a type of malignancy that starts in the cells of the liver. The liver, a vital organ situated in the upper right portion of the abdomen, plays a significant role in digesting food, detoxifying chemicals, and producing essential proteins for blood clotting.

Types of Liver Cancer

There are several types of liver cancer:

1. Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

HCC is the most prevalent form of liver cancer, beginning in the main type of liver cell called the hepatocyte.

2. Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

This rare form of liver cancer originates from the bile ducts within the liver.

3. Hepatoblastoma

A very uncommon form primarily seen in children, hepatoblastoma tends to have a more favorable prognosis.

4. Angiosarcoma and Hemangiosarcoma

Originating from the blood vessels of the liver, these rare cancers progress swiftly and are typically detected at an advanced stage.

Causes and Risk Factors

Liver cancer is often a secondary result of liver damage which can be caused by:

  • Chronic hepatitis B or C infection
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
  • Cirrhosis
  • Diabetes
  • Aflatoxin exposure
  • Hemochromatosis

Recognizing the Symptoms

It’s essential to recognize the signs and symptoms of liver cancer early for timely intervention:

  • Weight loss without trying
  • Loss of appetite
  • Upper abdominal pain
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • General weakness or fatigue
  • White or chalky stools
  • Jaundice

Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnostic Procedures:

  • Blood tests
  • Imaging tests (MRI, CT, or Ultrasound)
  • Biopsy

Treatment Options:

1. Surgery

This includes liver transplant and surgical resection.

2. Localized Treatments

Options like radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation can help.

3. Radiation Therapy

This method uses high-powered energy beams to eliminate cancer cells.

4. Targeted Therapy

Specific drugs like sorafenib can obstruct the growth of cancer cells.

5. Immunotherapy

This helps the body’s immune system to combat cancer.

Prevention Strategies

  • Vaccinate against hepatitis B.
  • Take measures to prevent hepatitis C.
  • Limit alcohol intake.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Get regular check-ups if at risk.


Liver cancer, while challenging, is treatable, especially when detected early. Knowledge and awareness of its types, causes, symptoms, and treatments are crucial in managing this disease. Regular health checks and adopting preventive measures can significantly reduce the risk of liver cancer. For expert guidance and treatment, consult with Dr. Vijay Anand Reddy, a leading oncologist at Apollo Cancer Centre. Our team, under Dr. Reddy’s direction, is committed to providing comprehensive care and support throughout your health journey.