KIDNEY CANCER

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KIDNEY CANCER

KIDNEY CANCER

Cancer arising in the kidney is Renal Cell Carcinoma(RCC). The other types of kidney cancer are– Transitional Cell Carcinomas and Renal Sarcoma, but RCC, is the most common kidney cancer. Older age group of people, between the age group of 50 to 70  years are affected with RCC. 

In the past few years, RCC has reduced on account the advance and extensive usage of imaging techniques. There are 14 types of RCC. The most common four are — Clear Cell Carcinoma(CCRCC); Papillary Carcinoma( PRCC); 

Chromophobe Carcinoma (ChRCC); and Collecting Duct (Bellini duct) Carcinoma. 50% of the RCC are detected incidentally and the disease is asymptomatic. A renal mass is found when a radiologic study is done. 

STAGES OF RCC

  1. Stage 1and 2 – Tumour is about 7 cms and is limited to the kidney. 
  2. Stage 3 – Tumour extends into major veins and invades perirenal and renal sinus fat.  
  3. Stage 4 – The tumour extends beyond into the ipsilateral adrenal gland. 

RISK FACTORS OF RCC:

  1. Age, more incidence in men than women.
  2. Excess body weight.
  3. Hypertension.
  4. Cigarette smoking.
  5. Modern lifestyle.
  6. Diet.
  7. Occupation and environmental factors.
  8. Red meat consumption.
  9. Over consumption of alcohol.
  10. Genetic factors.
  11. Obesity

SYMPTOMS of RCC:

  1. Blood in urine.
  2. A lump in the abdomen.
  3. A constantly pain in the side.
  4. Loss of appetite.
  5. Weight loss.
  6. Anemia.

DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE:

  1. Physical exam and Health History.
  2. Ultra sound exam.
  3. Blood samples.
  4. Urinalysis.
  5. CT Scan.
  6.  MRI.
  7. Biopsy.
  8. Chest X ray.
  9. Bone scan.

SPREAD OF RCC:

-+There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.

  1. Tissue– from where it began,
  2. Lymph system-; from where it began into the lymph system and other parts of the body, here
    it forms into tumour– the metastatic tumour.
  3. Blood: travels through the blood to the other parts of the body.

If renal cell cancer spreads to the bone, the cancer cells in the bone are actually cancerous renal
cells. The disease is metastatic renal cell cancer, not bone caner.

TREATMENT OF RENAL CELL CARCINOMA:

Five types of standard treatment are used to treat RCC:

1) Surgery: to remove a part or all of the kidney– in this the types are–  

a) Partial Nephrectomy- to remove the cancer within the kidney and some of the tissue around it.

b) Simple Nephrectomy– only the kidney is removed.

c) Radical Nephrectomy– the kidney and the adrenal gland, surrrounding tissue,band nearby lymph nodes are removed.

2) Radiation Therapy:

a)High- energy x- rays are used to kill cancer cells or stop them from growing. 

b) In External radiation therapy a machine is used to send radiation to the cancerous area, this relieves symptoms and improves the quality of life.

3) Chemotherapy: 

a) Drugs are used to stop the growth of cancer cells or to kill the cells or to stop them from dividing.

b) Through this treatment, the drugs enter the bloodstream and reach the cancer cells through the body.

4) Immunotherapy: 

a)Immunotherapy means the patient’s immune system is used to fight the cancer. 

b) Substances made by the body or made in the laboratory are used to boost, direct or restore the body’s natural defences against cancer.

5) Targeted Therapy: 

a) Drugs or other substances are used to identify and attack specific cancer cells.

b) This treatment causes less harm to normal cells.

Patients can opt for attending clinical trials, before, during or after starting the cancer treatment. This helps to understand the disease better, the patient can learn new ways to stop cancer from recurring or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment.  

Follow up tests or check ups are a must. 

RENAL CELL CARCINOMA IN INDIA: 

In India  one third of the patients below the age of 50 years are also suffering from Renal Cell Carcinoma. Many cases are reported only at later stages because of lower literacy rate, poor socioeconomic stage, poor understanding of the seriousness of the disease.  

Whereas in European countries patients were in the age group of 63 years and above. 

Western countries the male to female ratio is 2:1, whereas in India males are 4 times likely to suffer from RCC. This is mainly because medical help is sort early. 

These can be reduced by stopping smoking, reducing hypertension, taking care of diet, protection of the environment, and taking protection measures at hazardous work. 

Better to go for a yearly body check up after a certain age. Doctors are aware to  diagnose the disease at the right time. 

DIET FOR RCC:

  1. Eat as healthy as possible that can be easily digestible, like –Fruits  and vegetables — oranges, apples, bananas, carrots and spinach. 
  2. Whole grains, cereals. 
  3. Diary products like milk, cheese and yogurt. 
  4. Fish, poultry, eggs, dried beans and nuts. 
  5. Oil, butter,  
  6. If possible eat all these foods everyday. 
  7. Eat with others, so that you enjoy your meal.
  8. Eat slowly and chew well.
  9. Sit up after eating, at least for one hour before lying down.
  10. Drink sufficient fluids to avoid dehydration.
  11. Exercise to stay active and to control one’ s blood pressure.
  12. Maintain a healthy weight.
  13. Take medication as prescribed by your doctor. 

AWARENESS OF RCC:

A patient feels if he is diagnosed with cancer, that’s the end of his life. It’s not so, can be cured of it is diagnosed and treated when localized to the kidney and to the immediately surrounding tissue. The cure is directly related to the stage or degree of the tumour’s spread. Cell carcinoma. 

Knowledge about the disease before it is affected is needed.  

Supportive care and services are also needed to help the patient tackle his emotional, social, psychosocial, informational, spiritual and practical needs during diagnosis, treatment and follow up stages. The patient should be helped to cope with high levels of distress, depressive symptoms, pain, fatigue, changes in mobility, social functioning and decreasing sexual function. 

The best help can be sought from the treating doctor to solve all queries.