Eating healthy improves ones health. Eating healthy means following a regular pattern of diet which includes a variety of nutritious food and drink, like Carbohydrates, Protein, Fats, Vitamins and Minerals and Water. Eating adequate number of calories that’s right for you is also a must.
From ages the nutritious food has an important influence on the risk of developing Cancer. If there is an adequate intake of proper food it can reduce the development of Cancer. The exact effect of diet on the risk of developing cancer is challenging. In the world the leading cause of death is mainly cancer, which can be prevented by taking the right diet.
TYPES OF CANCER AND FOOD:
1. CANCER OF THE ORAL CAVITY AND PHARYNX:
Nasopharyngeal cancer is common around the globe. Consumption of foods preserved in salt like salted fish, smoking and consumption of alcohol are the main causes. Apart from these- deficiencies of vitamins and mineral supplements is also another cause.
DIET RECOMMENDED: Raw vegetables, citrus fruits, other fruits, liver, fresh fish and desserts.
2. OESOPHAGEAL CANCER:
There are two types of Oesophageal cancer—Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma. Causes for these cancers are –Obesity, increase consumption of alcohol, smoking, restricted diet, low intake of fruit, vegetables and animal products, so deficiencies of micronutrients. Drinking very hot tea and drinking beverages above 65% is also a cause.
DIET RECOMMENDED: peanut butter, soft boiled beans, scrambled eggs, cheese, and yogurt, sip liquids.
3. STOMACH CANCER:
Stomach cancer is the fifth most common cancer worldwide. Eating large amounts of salted fish, pickled vegetables, lack of eating foods less in vitamin C and may be consumption of green tea is also a factor.
DIET RECOMMENDED: turmeric, Onions, curd, citrus fruits, almonds, spinach.
4. COLORECTAL CANCER:
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer is the world. Causes for this cancer are obesity, alcohol, unprocessed meat, red meat, cooking meat at high temperatures, in some African countries high consumption of dietary fiber is also a cause.
DIET RECOMMENDED: Greek yogurt, eggs, soup, hot or cold cereal, lean meats, like fish or chicken.
5. LIVER CANCER:
Alcohol is the main cause for this cancer as it develops cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis. Other causes are—overweight, obesity, grains, nuts and dried fruit when stored in hot and humid conditions is also risky and sometimes over consumption of coffee is also a factor.
DIET RECOMMENDED: Whole grains, spinach, carrot, sweet potatoes, nuts, and seeds.
6. PANCREATIC CANCER:
Obesity and diabetes are the main causes. Increased injecting insulin is also a major cause.
7. LUNG CANCER:
Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world because of heavy smoking and even among passive smokers.
DIET RECOMMENDED: Low-fat dairy, Nuts and nut butters, Soy foods, beans, Brown rice
8. BREAST CANCER:
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world. Reproductive, hormonal factors, obesity in postmenopausal women, alcohol, high intake of fatty foods in adulthood are some of the causes.
DIET RECOMMENDED: low fat milk and dairy products, dark, green, leafy vegetables, beans, pulses, fish, eggs, and some meat.
9. PROSTATE CANCER:
Prostate cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the world. Causes for this cancer are age, family history, black ethnicity, genetic factors, obesity, hormone insulin and intake of animal proteins.
DIET RECOMMENDED: Cruciferous vegetables, Grapefruit, Oranges, lemons other citrus fruits, Peppers and jalapenos, Pomegranate, Mushrooms and Tomatoes.
DIET FACTORS: Foods may cause cancer by direct carcinogen which is produced by cooking. Food stuff may alter the bacterial flora of the bowel thereby producing carcinogen.
Meat, Sugars, FAT, Protein, Vitamins and Minerals, Alcohol, Nitrates, Estrogens, Viruses, Stress, Age, Physical Activity and Immune factors are directly or indirectly cause cancer.
CANCERS AND DIET RECOMMENDED:
Cancer is not a single disorder. There are many different kinds of cancers which take different courses and treatment. The cancers most likely to be influenced by Diet are—uterine cervix, breast, oro-phyaryngeal, colorectal, stomach, ovarian, oesophageal and prostate. About 1/3 of all cancers are directly or indirectly related to DIET.
To prevent excessive weight loss and to increase the metabolic demands, the total energy value of the diet must increase. An adult with good nutritional status about 2000 kcal can withstand the treatment. A malnourished patient requires 3000 to 4000 kcal during treatment.
CALORIES REQUIRED ARE:
–20-25 kcal /kg for sedentary patients,
–30-35 kcal to gain weight,
–40-45 kcal for severely stressed patients,
–Use of carbohydrate and fat modules is often helpful to achieve caloric levels and patients who are stressed or have a history of diabetes should be monitored.
Additional protein is necessary to provide the essential amino acids and nitrogen for tissue regeneration, healing and rehabilitation.
–0.5 g minimal daily requirement of protein,
–o.8 g -1.0 g /kg normal maintenance level,
–1.5-2.5 g /kg to increase the protein demand.
VITAMINS AND MINERALS:
Optimal intake of vitamins and minerals are recommended. Vitamin D helps to protect against several types of cancer including breast cancer.
Fluids must be increased to compensate losses from gastrointestinal problems and also if there is any additional loss caused by infections and fever. Sufficient intake of fluid helps to destroy cancer cells and also helps to protect the urinary tract from irritation and inflammation.
INDIAN CANCER SCENARIO:
–7,00,000 individuals develop cancer every year in India,
–2 million suffer from cancer at any given time,
–Annually mortality is about 4,00,000.
GENERAL FOOD MANAGEMENT:
Feeding the patient by normal and nutrient supplements is most advisable. Based on individual nutritional assessment, a personal food plan needs to be developed with the patient, along with desired food and family patterns. It’s always recommended the hospitalized patient’s food can be brought from home according to the plans of the clinical nutritionist with the family. A number of adjustments are made in food texture, temperature, amount, timing, taste, appearance and form to help alleviate symptoms. With support the patient and family will be able to build a positive mental attitude toward the diet as an integral part of the treatment.