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Colon Cancer

Sight:- Colon

Sex Prediction:- Male/Female

Age:- 90% Of The People That Are Diagnosed With Colon Cancer Are Usually Above The Age Of 50 Years.

The Occurrence Rate Of Colorectal Cancer Is 15 Times More In Adults Above 50 Years As Compared To Those Aged Between 20 To 49 Years. As Per The Statistics Of National Cancer Registry Programme In India, In The Year 2010, 12.6 % Deaths Were Caused Due To Stomach Cancer Out Of All The Cancers. Average Age Of All People Diagnosed With Colon Cancer Is 72.

Risk Factors:

  • Older age
  • Colon Polyps
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Prior Cancer
  • Family History
  • Genetic Conditions


  • Colonoscopy
  • Flexible Sigmoidoscopy
  • Stool Test
  • Virtual Colonoscopy

Symptoms of Colon Cancer:-

  1. A change in the bowel habits, including diarrhea or constipation or a change in the consistency of the stool
  2. Rectal bleeding or blood in the stool
  3. Persistent abdominal discomfort such as cramps, gas or pain
  4. A feeling that bowel doesn’t empty completely.
  5. Weakness or fatigue
  6. Unexplained weight loss

Many people with colon cancer experience no symptoms in the early stages of the disease. When symptoms appear, they will likely vary depending on the cancer size and location in your large intestines.

Diagnosis of Colon Cancer:-

  • The only way to know if you have colon cancer is to test colon tissue through colonoscopy & Biopsy
  • Test that takes pictures of the inside of the body like CT or MRI can tell if the cancer is present.
  • Endoscopic Polypectomy: – often the polyps are fully removed during colonoscopy. This is called an endoscopic polypectomy.
  • The Polypectomy is not the only way to collect colon tissue sometimes part of a polyp or part of the nearby colon wall is removed to test if  cancer cells are present

Colon Cancer Treatment:-

Terms describing the orders of treatment:

1. Primary Treatment – The main treatment for cancer

2. Neoadjuvant Treatment- Treatments given before the primary treatment.

3. Adjuvant Treatment- Treatment that follow primary treatment

4. First line Treatment- The first treatment given

5. Second line Treatment- Treatment given after first treatment fails.

Note:- Colon cancer is a serious disease that can be treated. Not every person will receive every type of treatment listed. They are several terms used to describe the type of treatment to be given ex:- some people receive chemotherapy after surgery. In this case surgery is the primary treatment and chemotherapy is an adjuvant treatment.


If the cancer has grown beyond the polyps a colectomy is done to remove that part of the colon with cancer. There are a few steps to prepare for surgery. In this case you need to stop taking medication to reduce the risk of severe bleeding. Eating less changing to liquid diet or using animas, laxatives will empty the colon for surgery. A colectomy is done with either an open or a laparoscopic method. The Laparoscopic approach removes tissue through a small incision with a laparoscope.

Lymph Node Surgery:

The surgery to remove lymph nodes is called lypmphectomy. It is often done during a colectomy. A minimum of 12 nearby lymph nodes should be removed and tested. All abnormal looking nodes shall be removed too.


The treatment uses high energy beams to kill cancer cells. It is not often used to treat colon cancer. External radiotherapy delivers a beam of radiation from a machine outside the body. Internal radiotherapy places a radioactive object near or inside the body.

Systematic Therapy:

Colon cancer is able to spread beyond the colon to other parts of the body. Doctors use drugs to treat cancer cells that have spread through the body. The treatment is called systematic therapy.


Chemotherapy and targeted therapy are systematic therapies for colon cancer. Most of these drugs are liquids that are injected in the vein. Others are a pill that is swallowed. The drugs travel in the blood to all parts of the body where they attack cancer cells.