above 50 years.
Prostate cancer affects millions of men worldwide. There was an increase in the cases of prostate cancer cases in the early 1990's. However, since 2006 there has been seen a drastic drop in the incidence of cases diagnosed.
Family History of Prostate Cancer
Infection with HPV/EBV
Digital rectal exams (DRE) are used for identification of abnormalities in the rectum. A doctor inserts a gloved, lubricated finger in the rectum and looks for any kind of aberration, such as changes in prostate.
The prostate specific antigen is a glycoprotein that is a part of semen and is produced by prostate cells. In case of any kind of abnormality in the prostate may result in a considerable boost in the level of PSA in the blood. Blood tests are used to evaluate the level of PSA in the blood. Higher level of PSA might signify a problem with the prostate.
The interpretation of PSA levels is not simple. Increased PSA levels signify something has lead to more PSA than normal to enter the bloodstream from the prostate. Numerous factors can cause an increase in PSA levels, like prostate infection or benign enlargement of the prostate. But, most men with increased PSA levels may not have prostate cancer. Also, not all prostate cancers cause the increase of PSA levels. These cancers usually do not get detected by the PSA test. As opposed to other cancers, Prostate cancer grows slowly and do not show any significant health risk. Although some prostate cancers can grow rapidly, the PSA test cannot distinguish between slow and fast growing prostate cancers.
Since PSA test results are so tricky to understand, the benefit of routine screening is not totally clear. For this reason, there is difference among cancer organizations about who should be tested and when they should be tested.
Patients in good health whose tumor s in the prostate gland only may be treated with surgery to remove the tumor. The following types of surgery are used:
Radical prostatectomy: A surgical procedure to remove the prostate, surrounding tissue, and seminal vesicles. There are two types of radical prostatectomy
Retro pubic prostatectomy: Prostate is removed with a surgical procedure through an incision in the abdominal wall. The nearby lymph nodes may also be removed at the same time.
Perineal prostatectomy: Prostate is removed with a surgical procedure through an incision made in the perineum (area between the scrotum and anus). The nearby lymph nodes may also be removed at the same time.
Radiotherapy uses a ray of high energy particles to wipe out cancer cells. It is required to kill cells that get left behind even after surgery. There are two types of radiation therapy: external and internal. External radiation therapy is performed outside the body with the help of a machine toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy takes the help of a radioactive substance covered in needles, wires, seeds, or catheters that are placed near the cancer.
The extent of radiation therapy depends on the type and stage of the cancer.
Hormone therapy is a cancer treatment that blocks the action of hormones to stops cancer cells from growing. Hormones are produced by glands in the body and circulate in the bloodstream. In case of prostate cancer, sex hormones of men can lead to the growth of prostate cancer.
Hormone therapies for prostate cancer are following:
Luteinizing hormone- It can impede the testicles from making testosterone. For instance, leuprolide, goserelin, and buserelin.
Antiandrogens can stop the working of androgens. For instance, flutamide, bicalutamide, enzalutamide, and nilutamide.
Drugs preventing the adrenal glands from making androgens. For instance, ketoconazole and aminoglutethimide.
Surgical procedure like Orchiectomy to remove one or both testicles.
The common side effects of hormone therapy are hot flashes, less libido, impaired sexual function, nausea, itching and weakened bones may occur in men treated with hormone therapy. Often Radiation and hormonal therapy are used together.
Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that takes the help of drugs to impede the growth of cancer cells, either by killing them or from stopping them from dividing. It can be given either given before surgery or after surgery based on the stage of disease. The usage of chemotherapy completely depends on the type and stage of the cancer. Chemotherapy in prostate cancer is given when the disease is progressing rather than giving hormonal or other therapy.