Being over 50 years old.
Being infected with human papillomavirus (HPV).
Having many sexual partners.
Having receptive anal intercourse (anal sex).
Frequent anal redness, swelling, and soreness.
Having anal fistulas (abnormal openings).
Physical exam and history: A general exam body is required to check general signs of health like lumps or anything else that seems abnormal. The doctor will also need to study the history of the patient's health habits and past illnesses.
Digital rectal examination (DRE): It is an assessment of the anus and rectum. A lubricated, gloved finger is inserted into the lower part of the rectum to look for anything abnormal or lumps.
Proctoscopy: An exam of the rectum using a lighted tube known as proctoscope.
Endo-anal or endorectal ultrasound: An ultrasound transducer is inserted into the anus or rectum to make a note of high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) off internal tissues. The echoes result in picture of tissues known as sonogram.
Biopsy: Cells or tissues are removed for viewing under a microscope to check for signs of cancer.
It uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. Radiation treatment is either given from a machine out of the body (external-beam radiation therapy) or given using implants (internal radiation therapy or Brachytherapy). Internal radiation therapy is given by injecting a small amount of radioactive material into the tumor or nearby area.
Chemotherapy or chemo means using an assortment of drugs to treat cancer. These drugs kill the dividing cells so that their growth can be controlled. Some of the chemotherapy agents are naturally occurring elements and some are man-made chemicals. Treatment of choice for anal canal cancer is usually simultaneous use of chemo and radiation, helping to preserve the organ and save the sphineter muscle
Local resection: A surgical procedure in which the tumor and some healthy tissue around it is removed. This procedure may be used if the cancer is still it its early stage has not spread. Tumors in the lower part of the anus may get removed removed with local resection.
Abdominoperineal resection: A surgical procedure that removes the anus, the rectum, and part of the sigmoid colon with the help of an incision in the abdomen. The end of the intestine is sewed to an opening, called a stoma, so that the body waste can be collected in a disposable bag externally.