Tobacco use of any kind including cigarettes, Cigars, Pipes, Chewing Tobacco and Snuff.
Heavy alcohol consumption
A Sexually transmitted virus called papillomovirus (HPV)
The most conventional type of biopsy is incision in which the doctor removes part or the entire lesion based on the extent of it at an early stage.
The tissue sample is examined under a microscope to check for malignant cells.
When dealing with an area having significant mass, fine needle aspiration cytology (fine needle biopsy or FNB) is used for diagnosis. The technique involves the attachment of a small needle to a syringe which is inserted into the doubtful mass, and cells are pulled out into the syringe.
Another form of incisional biopsy is punch biopsy in which a very small rounded blade is pressed into the doubtful area cutting a round border. The center of this area is then pulled with a scalpel or a pair of small tissue scissors snips, removing cells from the sampled area.
Some medical professionals also make use of "brush biopsy" where cell sample is collected by forcefully rubbing a brush against the doubtful area. Although it is useful for preliminary evaluation, it cannot be a standalone procedure.
CT, or CAT (co-axial tomography) scan uses a series of x-rays to view of a 3mm section of the scanned area, allowing doctors to get a dynamic view of the tissue areas of the body. However, CT can only indentify the actual existence of masses, and in order to find out whether it is malignant or not, a biopsy would be needed.
Another recent technology, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), is helpful in providing accurate views of the affected area. MRI is a procedure in which pictures are created using magnets and radio frequencies linked to a computer imaging system. Advantage of using URI over CT scan in Ca tongue is that it can determine the depth of invasion and soft tissue invasion much better than CT which helps in further management.
Note:- These symptoms may be attributed to a number of conditions other than cancer. It is important to consult with a medical professional for an accurate diagnosis.
Tumor resection involves an operation to remove the entire tumor from the tongue. Minimally invasive surgical techniques are used whenever possible to treat tongue cancer. Depending on the size of the tumor Surgeon decides for the surgery. It may be either excision (Tumor + some normal surrounding tissues) or hemiglossectomy (half of the tongue)
Your radiation oncologist will administer radiation therapy to cancerous tissues of the tongue, using a high dose with pinpoint accuracy, sparing healthy tissue and shortening procedure times. Requirement of Radiation Therapy depends on the tumor size depth of invasion, margin Stereo active Surgery Lmphnode involvement stage of disease.
This process uses anticancer drugs to kill the cancer cells throughout the body. It is considered an option when the cancer starts spreading to nearby lymph nodes.
Sometimes it can be given before definitive treatment (Surgery) to make in operable tumor operable where it is called Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.
Targeted drug therapy targets cancerous cells to interfere with cell growth on a molecular level. It is often combined with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy as part of a tongue cancer treatment plan. Auximal is one such drug.