Benign mixed epithelial tumor:- It is a noncancerous tumor that is not capable of spreading to other parts of the body. However, if left untreated, they will continue to grow.
Malignant mixed epithelial tumor:- It begins in the cells that line the lacrimal gland, and has the potential to spread to other parts of the body if not treated.
Lymphoma:- It can include different structures of the eye, but the most common affected parts are the conjunctiva and lacrimal glands.
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) of the lacrimal gland. It comes the category of adenocarcinoma, which encompasses any cancer arising from glandular tissues. It is identified by a unique pattern, in which bundles of epithelial cells enclose infiltrate ducts or glandular structures within the organ. With the growth of AdCC tumor, the eye is pushed forward, and a bulge is formed called proptosis.
Age:- It occurs more frequently in people in their 30s.
A history of lymphoma:- People having a history of lymphoma more prone to develop a periocular lymphoma.
Incomplete removal of a previous benign tumor:- In cases where a noncancerous lacrimal gland tumor was not removed, a risk of a malignant lacrimal gland tumor increases.
In addition to a physical examination, lacrimal gland tumor can be diagnosed with the following tests:
Biopsy: In a biopsy, a sample of tissue is removed so that it can be observed at under a microscope. The type of biopsy performed depends on the location of the tumor. In an incisional biopsy, the tumor is cut and a sample of tissue is removed. In an excisional biopsy, entire tumor is removed by the surgeon. A fine needle biopsy removes tissue sample by inserting a needle directly into the tumor. However, using fine needle biopsy for a lacrimal gland tumor is still controversial.
Computed tomography scans: The CT scan is an x-ray method that produces comprehensive, cross-sectional pictures of your body. You will get multiple images of your body that can be studied for deep analysis.
Magnetic resonance imaging scans: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans take the help of radio waves and strong magnets to take images of the body. The radio wave energy is absorbed and released in a pattern formed by the tissue type of certain diseases. The pattern of radio waves is translated by a computer to get a detailed image of parts of the body.
Positron emission tomography scan: In PET test, radioactive glucose is injected into the patient to check for cancer cells. The cancer cells tend to use glucose at a higher rate and hence a scanner can easily spot the radioactive deposits.
It involves removal of tumor and nearby tissue with the help of an operation. The ophthalmologist may get rid of parts of the affected eye or the complete eye (called enucleation), depending on the extent of the tumor spread.
The potential side effects of eye surgery are infection, pain and problems with anesthesia.
Thanks to the cosmetic surgery, now patients do not need to get worried about their appearance if at all their eye needs to be removed. The area of the missing eye is filled by prosthesis (artificial eye). It will work and behave almost the same as a natural eye.
Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. There are different types of radiation therapy. In case of external-beam radiation therapy, radiation is given from a machine outside the body. A common external-beam radiation therapy is Proton therapy (also called proton beam therapy) that uses protons instead of x-rays.
Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is another external-beam radiation therapy that accurately targets the tumor, and consequently is less likely to damage surrounding healthy tissue or organs.
Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. It can be either given orally in the form of a pill or intravenously with a needle. Chemotherapy gradually shrinks the tumors that are larger than 5 cm, which are usually not suitable for surgery. Chemo is usually given after surgery. The main objective of chemo is to keep the cancer from coming back.
The most common side effects of chemotherapy are fatigue, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, and diarrhea. These side effects tend to disappear once treatment is finished.
Immunotherapy (also called biologic therapy) is designed to boost the body's natural defenses to fight the tumor. It uses materials made either by the body or in a laboratory to bolster, target, or restore immune system function.