Please follow these simple instructions during the course of the therapy. Please show this to your referring or family doctor for their information and guidance
Breast Cancer is one of the Cancers afflicting a large number of women. The causes of Breast Cancer are not fully known. Simply being a woman and growing older put you at risk. However, there are certain known risk factors which are in your control.
Finding a lump or change in your breast does not necessarily mean you have breast cancer.
Breast Cancer can be prevented by identifying changes in the breast at an early stage. If you find any of the following symptoms in your breast, you should see an oncologist.
The following can aid you in identifying breast cancer at an early stage.
Mammography is a specific type of imaging that uses a low-dose X-ray system for examination of breasts. It plays a crucial part in early detection of breast cancers because it can show changes in the breast up to two years before a patient or physician can feel them. Current guidelines recommend mammography every year for women from the age of 40 years.
A specially qualified radiographer/technologist will position you to image your breast. The breast is first placed on a special platform and compressed with a paddle.
The technologist will go behind a glass shield while making the X-ray exposure, which will send a beam of X-rays through the breast to the film behind the plate, thus exposing the film. You will be asked to change positions slightly between images. The routine views are a top-to-bottom and a side view. The process is repeated for the other breast. The examination process should take about half an hour. When the mammography is completed, you will be asked to wait until the technologist examines the images to determine if more are needed. A sono-mammography might be asked for by the Radiologist on review of the mammography films.
You will be able to resume your usual activities. Date and time for the collection of the report shall be communicated to you. Your physician will discuss the test results with you.
You will feel pressure on the breast as it is squeezed by the compressor. Some women with sensitive breasts may experience discomfort. If this is the case, schedule the procedure when your breasts are least tender. The technologist will apply compression in gradations. Be sure to inform the technologist if pain occurs as compression is increased. If discomfort is significant, less compression will be used.
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This guide helps you to understand chemotherapy. Your family and friends may also find it helpful to learn about your treatment. You will find information about:
Everyone is different and everyone’s cancer treatment and side effects are different. Talk to your healthcare team about your situations. Tell them about any side effects you may have. This booklet is designed to help you work with your healthcare team.
Teamwork is needed to treat cancer. Before treatment begins, you will meet with your healthcare team to discuss the choices that are available to you. Your healthcare team will consider.
A Surgeon performs any biopsies (cells or tissues are removed from the body and examined to help with a diagnosis) or surgery that you may need.
A Radiologist reads and interprets X-rays and other imaging tests. They also perform biopsies during the specialized X-ray procedures.
A Pathologist looks at the tissue from the biopsy under a microscope to see if it has cancer cells.
A Medical Oncologist specializes in the treatment of cancer suing different medications, such as chemotherapy drugs.
A Radiation Oncologist treats the cancer with special X-ray therapy (Radiation).
A Surgical Oncologist treats the cancer by removing lumps or tumors from the body.
An Oncology Nurse has received special education and has experience in caring for people with cancer.
An Oncology Pharmacist prepares and dispenses cancer drugs and other medications, and helps teach you about your medications.
An Oncology Social Worker or Psychologist provides support and can help you and your family cope with the disease and its treatment.
A Physiotherapist helps with the physical recovery from your illness. They can help maintain and help improve your overall fitness and health.
A registered Dietician has received special education in nutrition and has additional clinical training. They can offer you counselling about your diet during your cancer treatments. Your family doctor plays an important part in continuing your care, especially after your cancer treatments are over.
You are the most important member of your healthcare team. As a member of the team, you should:
Cancer is a disease that starts in our cells. Our bodies are made up of millions of cells, grouped together to form tissues or organs such as the lungs, the liver, muscles and bones. Normally our cells obey their orders and we remain healthy. Sometimes a cell’s instructions get mixed up and it behaves abnormally. After a while groups of abnormal cells form lumps or tumors.
Chemotherapy is a method of treating cancer by using drugs. Often, a combination of chemotherapy drugs is used. Chemotherapy is one of many different ways to treat cancer. The three most common ways are surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Surgery removes the cancer from one area of your body to destroy cancer cells. Chemotherapy is different from surgery or radiation therapy because it affects the whole body.
Cancer cells grow in an uncontrolled way. Chemotherapy drugs slow or even stop the cancer cells from growing, multiplying or spreading to other parts of your body.
Each cancer is different so each treatment plan is different. Your healthcare team will estimate how long your chemotherapy schedule will last. You may get chemotherapy treatment every day, every week or every month.
Chemotherapy drugs can be given by mouth (orally) or by injection, depending on type of chemotherapy. Your healthcare team will help you decide on the method that is best for you.
Chemotherapy treatments should not be painful, but they can cause side effects that are painful.
During regular visits with your healthcare team, they will check how you are doing and how well the treatment is working. They will check your progress with physical exams, blood tests, imaging scans and X-rays. These tests will show if the chemotherapy drugs are destroying the cancer cells.
Before your first treatment, let your healthcare team know about any other medications you are taking. These medications might interact with chemotherapy drugs, making them less effective or producing side effects.
Chemotherapy lowers the number of white blood cells (WBCs) your body makes. A fever of 1010 F (38.30C), or chills with or without a fever, can be a serious sign of infection. You must call your oncologist should this occur even if you experience these symptoms at night or on the weekend.
Around the third day following a chemotherapy treatment, some people may experience flu like symptoms such as muscle aches and pains. If you experience these aches, you can take over the counter medications that you regularly use, such as Crocin.
Practical Hints for Nausea
Before your chemotherapy appointment, eat a small, light meal. Eat what sounds good to you Plenty of fluids, herbal teas, water, “sports drinks” and diluted juices are recommended more than soda. Avoid smells that are unappealing.
Chemotherapy can make you feel tired.
Practical Hints for FatiguePlan your activities such as grocery shopping, for a time when you feel the best. Take naps early in the day so you do not disturb your sleep pattern at night. Consider exercising everyday or several times a week. Good forms of exercise include swimming, walking and yoga.
Many people feel that hair loss is one of the most difficult aspects of chemotherapy treatment. Not all chemotherapy drugs cause hair loss, so talk to your physician. Most often hair loss begins about 2-3 weeks after starting chemotherapy. You may want to cover your head with a wig, scarf, hat or turban, or you may not want to cover your head at all. Do what makes you feel most comfortable. Your hair will begin to grow back after you stop chemotherapy. It usually takes from 2-3 months to see the change from no hair to some hair.
During chemotherapy you may experience taste and appetite changes and a heightened sensitivity to odors. Do not worry if you don’t have an appetite the first few days or a week following chemotherapy. It is not unusual, and as you feel better your appetite will improve.
Practical hints for Taste and Appetite changes
Eat what appeals to you during this time. Eat foods that are warm rather than hot. Avoid places where food is being cooked. Avoid smells that are unappealing. To try drink 8-10 glasses of fluid a day.
Some chemotherapy drugs can cause diarrhea. If you have more than three or four watery stools in 24 hours, or blood in your stool, call your care provider.
Practical Hints for constipation
To help prevent constipation try drinking 8-10 glasses of fluid a day. Stay as active as you can, as consistent regular exercise can reduce constipation.
Practical Hints for Diarrhea
To replenish lost fluids, drink 8-10 eight ounce glasses of decaffeinated fluids per day.
Another side effect of chemotherapy can be mouth sores and discomfort when swallowing. Mouth sores occur because chemotherapy not only destroys cancer cells, but also rapidly dividing cells.
Practical Hints for Mouth Sores
Brush your teeth a soft toothbrush 3 times daily. Rinse your mouth with a solution of 1 teaspoon baking soda and 1 teaspoon of salt, diluted in a glass of lukewarm water 3-4 times daily.
Please follow these simple instructions during the course of the therapy. Please show this to your referring or family doctor for their information and guidance.
(Chest Wall, Lung, Eesophagus, Breast) Please follow these simple instructions during the course of the therapy. Please show this to your referring or family doctor for their information and guidance.
‘Throat Cancer’ as is commonly referred to comprises cancer of the Larynx (voice box) and cancer of the Hypopharynx (upper part of the swallowing tube). This is a common cancer in our country and constitutes about 12% of all cancers. Around 80,000 throat cancers are newlydiagnosed every year in our country.
Majority of these cancers are caused by the use of tobacco in various forms. While smoking usually results in an increased incidence of Larynx cancer, chewing tobacco causes an increase in the incidence of Hypopharyngeal cancers. In those who do not chew or smoke tobacco, the cause is believed to be genetic.
The usual symptoms of these cancers are:
In later stages, there may be difficult or noisy breathing and total obstruction resulting in inability to even swallow liquids and choking.
These cancers are highly curable in the early stages. Even in the later stages, cancer of the Larynx, specially, still has a high percentage of cure with proper treatment. Treatment consists of Surgery, Radiation therapy or a combination of both. Sometimes, chemotherapy is also added where the cancer is more advanced. In the early stages, surgery only involves removal of a part of the voice box and voice can be preserved. However, in more advanced stages, the entire larynx has to be removed in a procedure called Total Laryngectomy. Following total Laryngectomy, normal speech is lost. However, with developments which have taken place recently it is now possible for total Laryngectomy patients to speak by the insertion of a voice prosthesis at the time of surgery or later. All patients who undergo Laryngectomy at the Apollo Cancer Institute are now encouraged to have this prosthesis inserted and get back their speech. Radiation therapy is an alternative to surgery. It is primarily used when the cancer in the throat is at an early stage. It may also be used in more advanced cases where the patient is not willing for total laryngectomy or is unfit for the surgery. New trials are in progress, where in radiation therapy is combined with chemotherapy to give better results in patients with advanced disease. Surgery is the only treatment in patients who have failed radiation therapy.
A laryngectomee is a person who has undergone Laryngectomy. In order to get all these people together towards a common goal, a Laryngectomee Society has been started at the Apollo Cancer Institute, where laryngectomees and their relatives meet once in a month and to interact socially. Laryngectomees try out their voices, discuss, try to find solutions to each other’s problems, give and receive encouragement. The society meets on the 2nd Saturday of every month at 11 a.m., at Apollo Cancer Institute. A Dietician, Physiotherapist & Medical Social Worker also participatein order to facilitate the rehab of these members.